of Architectural History (MArH), May 1998
Double major: American Architecture; East Asian Architecture
Thesis Title: "The Mission 66 Visitor
Centers, 1956-1966: Early Modern Architecture in the National Park Service"
Webmaster award for related web site from "5001 Cool Sites for Kids"
in March 2000.
of Science, Architectural Studies, June 1992
Salt Lake City, Utah
Major: American Architecture
Mission 66: Modern Architecture in the National Parks, to
be published by Balcony Press, California. See related website:
Centers" entry, Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture,
Christopher Hudson, ed., by Fitzroy-Dearborn Press, due to be published
in January, 2002.
the Labyrinth: Designs and Meanings Over 5,000 Years, Hermann
Kern, published by Prestel, 2000. Researched ancient Greek and Roman
writings to be included in this translation of a previously published
Development and editorial assistant, Compact Disc Edition and
Architecture of Jefferson Country: Charlottesville and Albemarle
County, Virginia.K. Edward Lay, published by the University
Press of Virginia, 1999. Planning and implementation of a compact
disc supplement to the text containing a database and photographs
of all structures surveyed in Charlottesville and Albemarle County.
Produced a five-minute digital video for inclusion on the disc.
Geographic Guide to America's Great Houses, Henry Wiencek, ed.,
published by National Geographic Society, 1999. Researcher and contributing
writer for illustrated guidebook to 150 historic homes in the United
States open to the public.
Editor, Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher,
AIA, ed., published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996. Compiled
over 400 illustrations for use in the dictionary. Reference text
contains 10,000 terms defining buildings, structural elements, materials,
Exhibit & Book Reviews:
Council for Preservation Education |
Review: Preservation of Modern Architecture, Theodore
H.M. Prudon." Preservation
Education & Research: Journal of the National
Council for Preservation Education, Premiere Issue, 2008.
Preface, Prudon cites the defeat of the prevailing “antimodern
bias” as one of the “fundamental challenge[s]”
facing historic preservationists today. Here, the architect dares
to take the first major step in understanding the diverse and
complicated topic of preserving historic modern architecture.
With this monumental achievement in the field, readers will be
well equipped with the tools necessary to win more victories on
the side of modernism."
Macaulay: The Art of Drawing Architecture." Review
of a National Building Museum exhibit.
State: Green Building Council Expands to Central Virginia"
Architecture+Design in the Mid-Atlantic, vol.
18, no. 2, 2007. Magazine for the Virginia Society of the American
Institute of Architects.
Living, October 2006, pp. 126-131. Featuring
photographs by Tyler Darden.
legacy of the Enron of the '50s, Lustron's last stand is at Marine
Base Quantico. Christine Madrid French wonders if the second time
is the charm for these endangered structures."
You Were Here: Rediscovering Vintage Motels," Virginia
Living, April 2006, pp. 158-165. Featuring photographs
by Sascha Pflaeging.
Motels. They are disappearing, but some have survived, taking
visitors back to the era of motor courts and coffee shops."
a Masterpiece: Richard Neutra's Modernist Gettysburg Memorial,"
Summer 2005, 104-113.
of the Commonwealth," Virginia
Living, December 2004, 146-153. Featuring photographs
by Sascha Pflaeging. First Place Award for Whole Issue,
Design and Presentation, by the Virginia Press Association.
holiday time one of the great icons of Virginia is the Hampton
Coliseum, its sails tricked out with colored lights. But it
isn't the only Virginia arena; others dominate Virginia's urban
skylines. Chris Madrid French takes a survey of those wacky,
wonderful symbols of the '70s, Virginia's coliseums."
Cyclorama Building: Neutra's Monumental Vision at Gettysburg,"
National Building Museum, Blueprints, June
Cyclorama: No Safe Ground," L.A. Architect,
July/August 2000, 11.
bauzeitung: Zeitschrift fur Architekten und Bauingenieure.
Versus Geschichte? February 2008, 8.
Chris Fordney, "New Birth for Gettysburg." August 2002, 46.
Fred Bernstein. "Mission of Mercy: More than 100 Park Service
visitor centers, designed by some of the country's best midcentury architects,
are in danger of being torn down. Should they be saved?." July
Landscape Architecture. John Beardsley, "Critic at
Large: Another Battle at Gettysburg." September 2000, 128, 125.
& World Report. Margaret Loftus, "Rescuing the relics of modern
times." 5 June 2000, 56-7.
Papers, and Benefits:
"America's Best Idea: Our National Parks," Florentine Films,
2007. From Ken Burns
FAQ: This series "(five episodes, ten hours) will tell the
human history of five of the nationís most important and most
heavily visited National Parks (Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon,
Acadia, and Great Smoky Mountains) and the unforgettable Americans who
made them possible. Set against some of the most beautiful landscapes
on earth, each parkís story is filled with incidents and characters
as gripping and fascinating as American history has to offer. Woven
into the series will also be a broader, evolving story of the very idea
of National Parks, as uniquely an American concept as jazz, baseball,
and the Declaration of Independence as well as the expanding, constantly
changing National Parks system (encompassing stories from other parks)
and the growing role they all have come to play in our nation's sense
of itself, its past, and its future."
the Significance of Modern Structures," DC
Preservation League, Washington, D.C., 20 November 2008.
Invited panelist (with Theodore Prudon, PhD, FAIA, US DOCOMOMO; Beth
L. Savage, GSA; Kristi M. Tunstall, IIDA, GSA) for a discussion on modern
architecture, part of the D.C. Modern programming
series focused on providing exposure and context to Washington's modern
and Modernist buildings.
Stewardship of the Recent Past" and "Challenging
Recent Past Preservation Policies." National
Trust for Historic Preservation Annual Conference, Tulsa, Oklahoma,
October 22-23, 2008.
Two presentations and round-table discussions regarding federal ownership
of recent past buildings and the challenges of preserving buildings
constructed during the last fifty years.
Center as Monument: Re-Contextualizing Richard Neutra’s Cyclorama
Center at Gettysburg." Designing
the Parks Conference: The History of Park Planning and Design, Charlottesville,
Virginia, May 20-22, 2008. Sponsored
by the National Park Service, The Cultural Landscape Foundation, University
of Virginia, Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, George Wright Society,
National Parks Conservation Association, and the Van Alen Institute.
A conference in two
parts examining the design of buildings and landscapes in regional,
state, and national parks. This paper will re-contextualize Neutra’s
monumental vision for the Cyclorama Center both within the scope of
the Mission 66 building program and, more specifically, within the memorial
landscape at Gettysburg. I will argue that this building is an integral
part of the commemorative history of the battlefield, not unlike the
many statues and markers on the site, and deserving of landmark status.
My account will supplement current scholarship on Mission 66 by drawing
upon Neutra’s personal papers and original notes on the project
held at the archives of the University of California in Los Angeles.
by Design: Nationalizing Modernism in the Name of Preservation."
International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), International
Scientific Committee on 20th Century Heritage (ISC20C), Joint ISC
Meeting and Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, June 21-23, 2007.
Identification, Advocacy, and Protection of Post-World War II Heritage
Session; S. J. Kelley and T. G. Harboe co-editors. "Preserving
structures from the recent past is the latest, and perhaps one of the
most contentious, frontiers in our field. Unfortunately, modernism is
often the loser in the public relations of historic preservation. A
troubling gap exists between the academic understanding of a modern
building and the public perception of its place in the continuum of
architectural history. Professionals today rely too heavily on the habit
of describing modern architecture from its roots up – as an offshoot
of early twentieth century European works by leading architects such
as Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe – to provide a quick and
simple context for a general audience. Lacking a relevant local context,
most community-sponsored evaluations of a modern building’s significance
tend to be guided by subjective aesthetic analysis and misguided generalizations.
The buildings are too often deemed failures, miscreants worthy not of
praise but of demolition. My paper explores the persistent public reluctance
to acknowledge modernism's significance in our architectural past and
seeks strategies to re-contextualize modern design within nationalist
and regionalist idioms. This type of thoroughly researched 'people’s
history' for a troubled structure can build allegiances for preservation,
inspire a community to embrace historic architecture, and counter the
cultural amnesia that dooms historically significant, yet misunderstood,
buildings of the recent past."
of Modernism." Speaker at the National Trust for Historic
Preservation, National Preservation Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
November 4, 2006.
Session covered by Diana Nelson Jones of the Pittsburgh Post Gazette
vs. Preserving Debated in Mock Trials"). From the NTHP program:
"Preserving the recent past increasingly means saving places that
came about at the expense of earlier landmarks, including those destroyed
by urban renewal and highway building in the 1950s and 1960s. Conflicting
and sometimes painful histories of buildings from the recent past, and
public attitudes toward them, can cause challenges for preservationists.
Who decides what is significant and worth saving versus what is expendable?
Learn how you can effectively make a case and build a defense for sites
with difficult histories." Other speakers at session: Dan Becker,
Executive Director, Raleigh Historic Districts Commission; Dorothy Guzzo,
Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer, New Jersey Historic Preservation
Office; Charles A. Birnbaum, coordinator of the Historic Landscape Initiative,
a program of the National Park Service Heritage Preservation Services
Program. Moderator: Jeanne Lambin, Field Services Coordinator, Wisconsin
Field Office, NTHP. Session Manager: Adrian Fine, Director, Northeast
Field Office, NTHP.
Panel Member, Recent Past Symposium, Peerless
Rockville, Historic Preservation Ltd. Rockville, Maryland, October
to citizens, property owners, public officials, and decision-makers,
the symposium features Rockville from the end of World War II to the
opening of Metro -- the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Preservation experts
and local citizens will examine the challenges that are unique to buildings
from this time period and discuss practical strategies to preserve them
for future generations. The day will provide a variety of opportunities
to learn, to discuss, and to meet with others who cherish Rockville’s
architectural heritage. The symposium is presented by Peerless Rockville
and co-sponsored by the Rockville Historic District Commission, National
Trust for Historic Preservation, Preservation Maryland, Montgomery County
Historic Preservation Commission, and the Recent Past Preservation Network.
The event is funded in part by Willco Companies, Cohen Companies, and
Rockville Properties. The Rockville Channel will tape the event, for
Richard Neutra's Modernist 'Failure' at Gettysburg." Northern
Virginia Community College, Historic Preservation Program. Tea and Pedagogy
Lecture Series. Loudon Campus, April 20, 2006.
of Modernism. An architectural reception to benefit Richard Neutra's
Cyclorama Center at Gettysburg." Hosted by Design
Within Reach and the Recent
Past Preservation Network. Planning by Christine Madrid French,
Devin Colman, and Suzanne McLees. Washington, D.C., November 2005.
"A showcase of the brilliant, but largely unrecognized, works of
historic modern architecture and landscape design in D.C. and its surrounds.
Endangered works by Cesar Pelli, Mies van der Rohe, I.M. Pei, Lawrence
Halprin and others featured in presentations by local preservation advocates.
The event focused on the recent listing of Richard Neutra's Gettysburg
Cyclorama Center on the World Monuments Fund's Watch List of 100 Most
Endangered Sites with monies raised at the event dedicated to its preservation
and the exploration of re-use alternatives."
Un-American? Rethinking Richard Neutra's Monumental 'Failure' at Gettysburg."
Presented at the VIII International DOCOMOMO Conference "Import
- Export: Postwar Modernism in an Expanding World 1945-1975," New
York, New York, August 2004. For text, see published Conference
Proceedings, edited by Theodore H.M. Prudon and Helene Lipstadt,
DOCOMOMO International, Columbia University, New York, 2008.
"Which of All
the Pasts to Preserve?: Making the Case for Saving Modern Buildings,"
sponsored by the Thomas Jefferson Chapter of the Society of Architectural
Historians, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 20 March
of Solids': Redefining Mid-Century Modern Architecture," session
co-chair with Victoria M. Young, University of St. Thomas. Society of
Architectural Historians Annual Conference, Richmond, Virginia, 19 April
Architecture in the National Parks," public lecture, Central
Virginia American Institute of Architects, Architecture Week. New Dominion
Book Shop, Charlottesville, Virginia, 19 April 2001.
Advocacy: Taking Action to Save Historic Resources,"
Renovation, trade show and conference. Boston, Massachusetts, 29 February
Roads and Bridges of Mount Rainier National Park," co-authored with
Richard Quin, Historic American Engineering Record. Northwest Scientific
Association, Tacoma, Washington, March 1999.
Habitats, Summer 2005. An architectural competition sponsored
by Habitat for Humanity and the Charlottesville
Community Design Center to develop realistic, innovative, universal
models for multifamily housing that prevents displacement of residents.
Sunrise Trailer Court in Belmont (Charlottesville, Virginia) was the
subject, with the trailers to be removed or demolished and the land
redeveloped using affordable, compact, and sustainable design. Entered
"Sunrise Park" with partners Holger Jansen and Remo Lotano,
architects in Berlin, Germany.
Goucher College, Maryland. "Steeling Home: Defining Authenticity
and Integrity for Prefabricated Lustron Homes," Jennifer O. Sale.
Thesis completed for degree of Master of Arts in Historic Preservation,
2008. John A. Burns, FAIA, Chair of Committee, Welch Center for Graduate
and Professional Studies.
Civil War. "Christine Madrid French Wants to Save
the Cyclorama," Kim A. O'Connell, 19, November 2007.
Next American City. Preserving
the Recent Past — an Interview with Christine Madrid French,
8 January 2008
Hainer discusses Brutalism, thoughtless demolition and the preservation
of the recent past with Christine Madrid French.
Cultural Landscape Foundation. Stewardship
Stories - It Takes One! Individuals' stories recount
local efforts. Annual awards recognize current leaders in cultural
resource stewardship. Recognized for preservation efforts to save
the Cyclorama Building at Gettysburg National Military Park, Pennsylvania.
interview with Linda Jameson, WORT-89.9 fm, Madison, Wisconsin,
11 July 2005. Featured on 8 O'Clock Buzz, a one-hour, morning
drive-time show focusing on accessibility and serving as a forum for
community members to discuss the events of the day and issues of importance
to the community featuring volunteer hosts with a wide array of experience
and connection to the community. Speaking on the preservation of buildings
from the recent past.
15, 2004, issue #0316, cover story
"Recent passed: Will groovy structures be landmarks?"
Buy came to town last summer and demolished the Mount Vernon Motor
Lodge and the adjacent Aunt Sarah's Pancake House, Charlottesville
resident Christine Madrid French realized her town was losing more
than just a few pancakes and a heart-shaped swimming pool. While
many locals welcomed yet another low-cost electronics emporium,
French mourned the loss of legitimate pieces of Charlottesville
history and the end of an era of tourist-oriented roadside architecture.
"These buildings," says French, "have no protection at all." She's
on a mission to change that-- or at least change a few minds. ..."
Charlottesville's News & Arts Weekly,
2000; cover story. "The Saint of Parkitecture: Christine
Madrid's mission to save National Park centers from the wrecking ball."
9, 2000; comments on the Save the Poe House! campaign.
Quoted In/Cited (selected):
over Gettysburg building heads to court." Amy Worden, 30
October 2008. Philadelphia
"Battle Lines." Brennen Jensen, 31-33, July 2008.
work for recognition of black suburbs."
Andrew Welsh Huggins, 10 February 2008. USA
a history: An unusual assortment of non-Jeffersonian structures
that may be worth preserving." Will Goldsmith, 22 January 2008,
Issue 20.04, C-Ville:
Charlottesville News & Arts.
Nora Sobich, 1F2, 10 December 2007. Suddeutsche
Zeitung. German newspaper with 1.1 million readers
Rages Over Neutra’s Cyclorama Center. Ted Smalley Bowen,
3 October 2007. Architectural
war again around Gettysburg: This time it isn't a Civil War faceoff
but a clash with nature to restore the historic site to its 1863
appearance." Stevenson Swanson, 3 September 2007, Tribune national
Themed Playground May Vanish." Wendy Hundley, 6 August 2007,
Dallas Morning News.
and Visitor Center." Jen Faul, July and August 2007, Celebrate
Moderns Still Prove Controversial." Ted Smalley Bowen, 1 June
Sun |"The Past
Imperfect: Structures considered landmarks by many are at risk because
they're not quite old enough." Timothy B. Wheeler, 20 January
for Free, Quantico's Metal Houses Lack Magnetism." Nick Miroff,
16 July 2006.
"Houses of Steel: What it Takes to Save One of Quantico's Lustrons."
Jennie Phipps, 27 January 2006, Preservation
Online, National Trust for Historic Preservation.
New York Times
Tear-Down Could Be a Haul-Away: Saving Modernist Houses," Fred
A. Bernstein, 5 January 2006, The
New York Times.
New Battle of Gettysburg: Saving Richard Neutra's Cyclorama Building,"
Sandy McLendon, JetSet
Modern, online article.
Thoroughly Modern Conundrum: Paul Rudolph's Orange County Government
Center." Christopher Pryslopski, Autumn 2004, 72-83. The
Hudson River Valley Review: A Journal of Regional Studies
Angeles Times Magazine
Chooses History?" Mark Rozzo, 27 June 2004, 14-17, 31. Los
Angeles Times Magazine.
Plans, Small Houses: As demolition threatens midcentury houses,
fans of Modernism seek stronger protections for our recent architectural
history." Alexandra Lange, 1 May 2003. Metropolis
Cash in Kitsch, Retro Promoters Say." Amy Wimmer, Times Staff
Writer, 15 September 2002. St.
Petersburg (Florida) Times.
just thinking about Treasure Island motels? Some only have goo-goo
eyes for the 'googie'' architecture. They say work with it, baby."
of Mercy: More than 100 Park Service visitor centers, designed by
some of the country's best midcentury architects, are in danger
of being torn down. Should they be saved?" Fred
A. Bernstein, July 2001, 46-7.
The Business of Lobbying
at Gettysburg: Art Lobbyist Drawn Into Park Dispute,"
Sense of CyberPlace," Don Oldenburg, July 2000. Comments on
the Save the Poe House! internet mailing campaign. Preservation
Letters to the Editor:
"An Icon for
Readers and the District." The
Washington Post, 9 August 2005, A16. Defending the ongoing use of
the historic Martin Luther King, Jr., Library in Washington, D.C., designed
by Mies van der Rohe, 1972, in response to comments by columnist Marc
The Washington Post, 11 May 2001, A44. Concerning the historic
value of Edward Durell Stone's 1971 John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing
Arts in Washington, D.C.
Scientific Committee on 20th Century Heritage,
International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS),
January 2008 to present. Developing "20th Century Heritage Alerts
Program" with fellow member Enrique Madia.
(Maryland) Recent Past Advisory Committee, 2007 to present
Past Preservation Network, June 2000 to present
January 2003 to May 2005
Board of Directors,
January 2001 to May 2005
E-Protest letters and websites for Save the Edgar Allan Poe House! and
reCyclorama, 1999-2000. Now off-line.
and Founder, reCyclorama: The Campaign
to Save Richard Neutra's Cyclorama Building at Gettysburg,
April 1998 to present.
Researcher and Writer,
Foundation. Volunteer in the office and contributor to
"Guide to the Utah Heritage Foundation's 20th Annual Historic Homes
Tour," featuring seventeen 19th-century buildings in Bountiful
and Salt Lake City, Utah, 1991-1992.
Honors and Achievements:
Society of Architectural Historians,
Thomas Jefferson Chapter, 1997-1998.
Special Achievement Award, National Park Service, Historic American
Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record May 1993,
recognizing attention to detail and outstanding organizational and editing
skills as a HABS/HAER historian.
England, 1997. Architectural study tour with the Victorian Society.
China, 1997. Architectural study tour with the University of Virginia.
States visited: California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, South Dakota,
Nebraska, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts,
North Carolina, New Mexico, Colorado, Montana, Iowa, Maryland, West Virginia,
Alaska, Florida, Delaware, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut.
States resided: California, Utah, Maryland, Virginia, Washington, D.C.
Papers of George Washington,
of Virginia, Charlottesville, January 2000 to February 2002
Project established in 1969 at the University of Virginia, under the joint
auspices of the University and the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of
the Union. The Papers project publishes chronological volumes containing
letters written to Washington as well as letters and documents written
by him between 1748 and 1799. The new edition is supported financially
by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National
Historical Publications and Records Commission, as well as the Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association and the University of Virginia.
- Design, maintain,
and update the project's website
featuring transcripts of Washington's letters, images of the original
handwritten documents, frequently asked questions about George and Martha
Washington, project information, rotating exhibits, and indexes for
- Research and development
of digitized database for George Washington's financial records.
Munich, Germany, February 1999
- Assignments by
contract. Conduct bibliographic research, confirm quotations, and fact-check
footnote references in texts translated from German to English.
Digital Image Processing and Web Site Production
Digital Media Lab,
University of Virginia,
September 1996 to December 1999
- Digital media production
focusing on architecture and architectural history projects, including
photographic databases, web databases, and web site development in cooperation
with professors, staff, students, and other university centers.
- Advise and train
students, faculty, and staff on software and hardware options for scanning
and processing digital images, text, and video.
- Installation, configuration,
maintenance, troubleshooting, and upgrades of computer operating systems,
software and hardware.
- Configuration of
software and hardware for thirteen Macintosh computer stations.
- CD creation/duplication.
Architecture of Jefferson Country: Charlottesville and Albemarle County,
Virginia. Development and production of an interactive companion
compact disk for an upcoming publication by Professor Edward Lay, School
of Architecture, University of Virginia.
Production of a course web site for Patricia Kucker, Assistant Professor,
School of Architecture, University of Virginia. Used as the basis of
communication between students of the course in Venice, Italy, and Charlottesville,
Virginia. (restricted site - access to university-affiliated accounts
- "History of American
Landscape Architecture," a course-related web site for the study of
historic American landscape architecture from the seventeenth century
to the present. Site consists of 2000 digitized slides and 50 pages
of text as compiled by Reuben
M. Rainey, professor of Landscape
Architecture at the University of Virginia. (Note: may not be accessible
to non-UVa inquiries)
Architecture of China," a searchable web-site containing over one-hundred
images. Photographs and information compiled by Christine Madrid in
1997 during a month-long architectural study tour in the Beijing area.
(Note: may not be accessible to non-UVa inquiries)
Stewardship and Partnerships, System Support Office, National Capital
Region, Washington, D.C., December 1994 to August 1996
- Documented and
discovered sites for the List of Classified Structures (LCS), an inventory
database maintained by the National Park Service (NPS) containing a
listing and description of all historic properties within NPS administered
lands, evaluated by National Register of Historic Places criteria. Survey
work primarily at Antietam National Battlefield, Chesapeake & Ohio
Canal National Historical Park, National Capital Parks, and Prince William
- Conducted field
surveys at NPS sites in the Washington, D.C., region, completing documentation
on more than 1100 industrial, residential, and funerary structures.
Relocated oldest cemetery in Montgomery County, Maryland (ca. 1776),
and discovered early nineteenth century plantation ruins in Prince William
National Park Service,
American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER),
Washington, D.C., June 1992 to December 1994
- Conducted final
review, verification, and edit of HABS/HAER manuscripts, photographs,
and measured drawings for the formal archival collection held at the
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
- Developed and implemented
a classification system for industrial and architectural complexes,
used as the basis of categorization for HABS/HAER materials of this
- Co-wrote the first
HAER Historian's Procedures Manual and assisted in editing the overall
HAER guidelines for documenting sites and industrial processes.
Word: The Monticello African-American Oral History Project,
International Center for Jefferson Studies, Monticello,
Charlottesville, Virginia, October 1997 to October
- Transcribed tapes
of interviews with descendants of slaves for oral history collection.
City of Philadelphia
Sculpture Survey, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 1997 to January
- Transcribed field
survey tapes for largest municipal sculpture survey ever undertaken
and coordinated information exchange within MS Access database.
Macintosh and IBM
- Database Managers:
- FileMaker Pro
- Microsoft Access
- Microsoft Excel
- Desktop Publishing
and Image Manipulation:
- Adobe Illustrator,
PageMaker, and Photoshop
- Adobe Portable
Document Format (PDF) writer
- Hypertext Markup
Language (HTML) editors:
- BB Edit
- Claris Home
- Word Processing
- Microsoft Word
- File Transfer
Protocol (FTP): Fetch and WS-FTP
- Image scanner
software (slide and flatbed)
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
- QuickTime Virtual